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ترن هوایی
 

ترن هوایی

دوشنبه، 05 آبان 1399 | Article Rating

دستگاه ترن هوایی بر اساس قانون پایستگی انرژی مکانیکی و نیروی گریز از مرکز در حرکت دایره ای کار می کند مجموع انرژی های جنبشی و پتانسیل، انرژی مکانیکی نامیده می شود و در میدان گرانشی زمین داریم:

اگر تنها نیرویی که به ذره وارد می شود نیروی گرانشی باشد، انرژی مکانیکی ثابت باقی می ماند. این قانون پایستگی انرژی مکانیکی نامیده می شود، این قانون وقتی صادق است که تمام نیروهای موجود در سیستم پایستار باشند، در غیر اینصورت مجموع تغییرات انرژی جنبشی و پتانسیل برابر با کار نیروی ناپایستاری است که ممکن است در هر لحظه قابل تغییر با شد. اگر در سیستم مورد نظر اصطکاک را صفر فرض نکنیم جسمی که روی سطح با ارتفاع خاص حرکت می کند و به یک نقطه دیگر در مکان با ارتفاع دیگر میر سد، مجموع انرژی جنبشی و پتانسیل ثانویه و اولیه آن برابر نخواهند بود بلکه به کاری که نیروی اصطکاک در طول مسیر انجام داده وابسته است بنابراین 0 u≠∆ k+∆ و در نتیجه داریم:
u= ∆ k+∆
که در آن کار نیروی اصطکاک است. همچنین ترن با سرعت روی دایره ای به شعاع می چرخد که در این حالت دارای حرکت دایره ای با شتاب ثابت مرکز گراست این شتاب برابر است با:

طبق قانون دوم نیوتن این شتاب باید بوسیله یک نیروی هم راستا ایجاد شود یعنی راستای نیرو باید رو به مرکز دایره باشد، مقدار نیروی مرکزگرا که برای نگهداری جسمی به جرم و با سرعت یکنواخت بر روی مسیر دایره ای با شعاع لازم است چنین است: ، نیروی وارد بر جسم که باعث حرکت دایره ای آن می شود همیشه یک نیروی مرکزگراست و آنچه ترن را روی مسیر نگه می دارد نیروی عکس العمل سطح است.
دستگاه ترن هوایی بر اساس قانون پایستگی انرژی مکانیکی و حرکت دایره ای کار می کند طبق این قانون مجموع انرژی جنبشی و پتانسیل ترن با صرفنظر کردن از اصطکاک سطح شیبدار در هر لحظه ثابت است زیرا ترن را از حال سکون رها می کنیم و تنها نیروی اعمال شده روی ترن گرانش است.
پس متناسب با ارتفاع مکانی که ترن را رها میکنیم ، انرژی پتانسیل گرانشی در ترن ذخیره می شود این ترن در مسیر دایره ای کامل به شعاع حرکت می کند، ترن روی ریل با اصطکاک ناچیز حرکت می کند. از نقطهA رها می شود و وقتی به نقطه B می رسد، کاملاًٌ بر عکس می شود ولی مایع درون شیشه آزمایش نمی ریزد زیرا در نقطه B دارای سرعت است. برای اینکه سرعت در نقطه B را بدست آوریم، داریم:



شرط بیرون ریختن آب از ترن در نقطۀ

اکنون می خواهیم ارتفاع در نقطه A را بدست آوریم :

حداقل ارتفاعی که ترن باید داشته باشد تا آب نریزد 2.5 برابر شعاع دایره است.

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شنبه, 06 دی,1399

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نظر جدید

تهران، میدان قدس، خیابان شهید کبیری (دزاشیب)، خیابان عمار، کوی شهید صالحی(عرفات)، شماره 22

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